American History Textbook PDF Free Download

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  • Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Americas had seen the rise and fall of numerous great civilizations. The complex pueblo societies of North America, such as the Mogollon, Hohokam, and Anasazi, as well as the city of Cahokia, had reached its apex and were largely relics. The Eastern Woodland Peoples were prospering, but as more English, French, and Dutch settlers arrived, they quickly became overwhelmed. The rise and fall of cultures had also been observed in Mesoamerica and South America. The vast majority of the once-powerful Mayan Population Centers were deserted. However, Mexico City's Aztec population was at its height in 1492. The Island City of Tenochtitl├ín, which subjugated neighbouring tribes and demanded tribute in the form of both goods for consumption and human sacrifice, served as the centre of an ever-expanding commercial centre.
  • Additional South Through the use of roads and well-trained armies, the Inca in Peru connected one of the greatest empires in history. Before abandoning the city for unknown reasons, they cut and fashioned stone to build Machu Picchu high in the Andes. As a result, the Europeans encountered peoples that varied greatly in terms of their cultures, traditions, and numbers depending on whichever region of the New World they explored. The Crusades had the effect of bringing the goods of the East to a larger portion of Western Europe. To meet the demand for these goods, a bustling trade eventually emerged along a number of routes collectively known as the Silk Road. Brigands and opportunistic middlemen travelled along this route.
  • Europe had recovered from the Black Death by 1492 and was eager to expand trade and communications with the rest of the world as it looked for new products and sources of wealth. Leading the way in trade with the East were Venice and Genoa. Explorers were driven by the allure of profit to seek out new trade routes to the spice islands and get rid of Muslim middlemen. Portugal attempted to send ships around the African continent under the direction of Prince Henry the Navigator. Columbus was hired by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile to find a way to the east by travelling west. They hoped to find sources of wealth while also spreading Christianity to the East and any newly discovered lands as ardent Catholics.
  • Numerous European nations competed for territory in North America after Columbus' Caribbean landing in 1492 (See P. 32), drawing African slaves and Native Americans into the conflict. In this geopolitical conflict, which lasted around two and a half centuries-longer than the United States has since existed-the land that would one day become the United States served as the grand chess board.

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